Posted on Friday 8 December 2023 by Cruickshank Intellectual Property


® – "Registered trademark" is applied to trademarks that have been registered and validated by an IP office;

™ – "Trademark" is applied to trademarks that have not yet been registered by an IP office; 

© – "Copyright" is applied to creations subject to copyright. It must be accompanied by the name of the owner of the work and the year of first publication.


Cruickshank provides advice in relation to intellectual property matters.

If you have an idea that requires protecting or simply need an expert in European IP Law, then please get in touch with us on 01-2992222 or at